Cardiology

Semi-urgent pulmonary vein isolation using cryoballoon for haemodynamically unstable atrial fibrillation storm in a patient with low cardiac output syndrome: a case report.




Semi-urgent pulmonary vein isolation using cryoballoon for haemodynamically unstable atrial fibrillation storm in a patient with low cardiac output syndrome: a case report.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2020 Sep 11;20(1):413

Authors: Koike T, Mori F, Maeda R, Kobayashi K, Sakai M, Oyabu K, Matsui Y, Yoshikawa M, Sugiyama K, Ajiro Y, Iwade K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation and heart failure are common coexisting conditions requiring hospitalisation for heart failure and death. Pulmonary vein isolation is a well-established option for symptomatic atrial fibrillation and for atrial fibrillation concomitant with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Recently, pulmonary vein isolation using cryoballoon showed non-inferiority to radiofrequency ablation with respect to the treatment of patients with drug-refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. However, the effectiveness of acute-phase rhythm control by semi-urgent pulmonary vein isolation using cryoballoon in patients with haemodynamically unstable atrial fibrillation storm accompanied with low cardiac output syndrome is unclear. Herein, we present a case in which semi-urgent pulmonary vein isolation using cryoballoon was effective for acute-phase rhythm control against drug-resistant and haemodynamically unstable repetitive atrial fibrillation tachycardia accompanied with low cardiac output syndrome.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old man was hospitalised for New York Heart Association functional class 4 heart failure with atrial fibrillation tachycardia and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction of 20% accompanied with low cardiac output syndrome-induced liver damage. The haemodynamics collapsed during atrial fibrillation tachycardia, which had become resistant to intravenous amiodarone and repeated electrical cardioversions. In addition to atrial fibrillation, atrial tachycardia and common-type atrial flutter appeared on day 3. Multiple organ failure progressed gradually due to haemodynamically unstable atrial fibrillation tachycardia storm accompanied with low cardiac output syndrome. On day 4, to focus on treatment of heart failure and multiple organ failure, semi-urgent rescue pulmonary vein isolation using cryoballoon to atrial fibrillation and cavotricuspid isthmus ablation to common-type atrial flutter were performed for acute-phase rhythm control. Soon after the ablation procedure, atrial fibrillation and common-type atrial flutter were lessened, and sinus rhythm was restored. A stable haemodynamics was successfully achieved with the improvement of hepatorenal function. The patient was discharged on day 77 without complications.
CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates that acute-phase rhythm control by semi-urgent pulmonary vein isolation using cryoballoon could be a treatment option in patients with haemodynamically unstable atrial fibrillation tachycardia storm accompanied with low cardiac output syndrome, which is refractory to cardioversion and drug therapy.

PMID: 32917143 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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