4D flow MRI applications in congenital heart disease.
Eur Radiol. 2020 Sep 01;:
Authors: Rizk J
Advances in the diagnosis and management of congenital heart disease (CHD) have resulted in a growing population of patients surviving well into adulthood and requiring lifelong follow-up. Flow quantification is a central component in the assessment of patients with CHD. 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a tool that enables comprehensive study of flow. It involves the acquisition of a three-dimensional time-resolved volume with velocity encoding in all three spatial directions along the cardiac cycle. This allows flow quantification and visualization of blood flow patterns as well as the study of advanced hemodynamic parameters as kinetic energy and wall shear stress. 4D flow MRI-based study of flow has given insight into the altered hemodynamics in CHD particularly in bicuspid aortic valve disease and Fontan circulation. The aim of this review is to discuss the expanding clinical and research applications of 4D flow MRI in CHD as well its limitations.Key Points• Three-dimensional velocity encoding allows not only flow quantification but also the visualization of multidirectional flow patterns and the study of advanced hemodynamic parameters.• 4D flow MRI has added insight into the abnormal hemodynamics involved in congenital heart disease in particular in bicuspid aortic valve and Fontan circulation.• The main limitation of 4D flow MRI in congenital heart disease is the relatively long scan duration required for the complete coverage of the heart and great vessels with adequate spatiotemporal resolution.
PMID: 32870392 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]