Seed dormancy is a natural phenomenon in plants. It ensures that seeds complete the grain-filling stage before germination and prevents germination in unsuitable ecological conditions. In this study, we determined the previously unknown function of the rice (Oryza sativa) gene GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN 2-1 (OsGLP2-1) in seed dormancy. Using artificial microRNA and CRISPR/CAS9 approaches, suppression of OsGLP2-1 expression in rice resulted in the release of dormancy in immature seeds. Conversely, overexpression of OsGLP2-1 driven by the OsGLP2-1 native promoter led to greater seed dormancy. Seed scutellum-specific expression of OsGLP2-1 was increased by exogenous abscisic acid, but decreased with gibberellic acid treatment. We provide evidence that OsGLP2-1 is antagonistically controlled at the transcriptional level by ABA INSENSITIVE5 and GAMYB transcription factors. We conclude that OsGLP2-1 acts as a buffer, maintaining appropriate equilibrium for the regulation of primary dormancy during seed development in rice.