Non-infective endocarditis

Learning objectives

  • To outline the causes and epidemiology of non-infective endocarditis.

  • To explore the pathophysiology of non-infective endocarditis.

  • To discuss the appropriate investigation of patients with suspected non-infective endocarditis.

  • To highlight the key principles of management of non-infective endocarditis and when surgical intervention should be considered.

  • Introduction

    Endocarditis is defined as inflammation of the endocardium, the lining of the cardiac chambers and valves, and characterised by vegetations, most commonly caused by infection with bacteria or fungi. Non-infective endocarditis, also known as non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) or aseptic endocarditis, refers to a rare condition characterised by formation of sterile vegetations. Without treatment, these can lead to valve dysfunction, heart failure, systemic embolism and death. Herein, we review the pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of NBTE.


    The first description of sterile vegetations on the heart valves was provided by…

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