Pediatrics

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis and Aspergillus Sensitization in Children with Poorly Controlled Asthma



Abstract
Background

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) may be a risk factor for poorly controlled asthma in children. The studies regarding prevalence and risk factors of ABPA in children with poorly controlled asthma are limited in number.

Objectives

To determine prevalence and risk factors of ABPA and aspergillus sensitization (AS) in children with poorly controlled asthma.

Methods

In this prospective cross-sectional study from a tertiary care center in India, we enrolled asthmatic children 5–15 years of age with poorly controlled asthma. We did the following investigations: spirometry, skin prick test, serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE), aspergillus-specific IgE and immunoglobulin G, serum precipitin for Aspergillus, absolute eosinophil count, chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest. ABPA and AS were diagnosed as per the recently proposed criteria.

Results

We enrolled 106 children [boys 72 (67.9%); mean age of 10.2 ± 2.6 years] with poorly controlled asthma. The prevalence of ABPA and AS were 11.3% (95% CI, 5.2–17.5%) and 61.3% (95% CI, 52.0–70.7%), respectively. The presence of brownish sputum was significantly more in ABPA compared with non-ABPA patients (33.3 vs. 4.2%, p = 0.002). The age, gender, allergic rhinitis and gastroesophageal reflux were not significantly different in ABPA compared with non-ABPA patients.

Conclusion

The prevalence of ABPA and AS was 11.3 and 61.3%, respectively in children with poorly controlled asthma. We could not find any risk factors for ABPA except that the presence of brownish sputum was more in children with ABPA. Spirometry parameters were not significantly different in ABPA compared with non-ABPA patients.

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