Antibiotic stewardship at hospital discharge is an area of need. We assessed the rate of optimal antibiotic prescriptions at hospital discharge, on the basis of urine culture and susceptibility data, for children diagnosed with a urinary tract infection (UTI).
We conducted a retrospective study of patients ≤18 years of age who were admitted to a general pediatrics service at a freestanding children’s hospital during 2017 with a diagnosis of UTI and received an antibiotic prescription at discharge. For the primary analysis, optimal antibiotic at hospital discharge was determined by evaluating if the cultured urinary pathogen was susceptible to the prescribed antibiotic and if the antibiotic was the narrowest-spectrum option available. Secondary objectives included assessment of antibiotic dosing accuracy and description of antibiotic treatment duration.
A total of 78 cases were included. Sixty-eight (83%) cases were caused by cefazolin-susceptible Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species. Thirty-one (40%) cases had a discharge antibiotic prescription that was determined to be optimal. Of the 47 (60%) cases that were suboptimal, 44 (94%) were considered to be excessively broad spectrum. In 3 (6%) cases, the causative organism was nonsusceptible to the prescribed antibiotic. Ten (13%) discharge antibiotic prescriptions had inaccurate dosing and/or frequency.
Missed opportunities for narrow-spectrum antibiotic selection at hospital discharge for pediatric UTIs frequently occurred. In particular, higher-generation cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin were often prescribed for cephalexin-susceptible cases. Antibiotic stewardship attention, specifically at hospital discharge for pediatric UTIs, is likely to have a high impact.