In vitro evaluation of reactive nature of E- and Z-guggulsterones and their metabolites in human liver microsomes using UHPLC-Orbitrap mass spectrometer.
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2020 Mar 23;186:113275
Authors: Balhara A, Ladumor M, Singh DK, Praneetha P, Preethi J, Pokharkar S, Deshpande AY, Giri S, Singh S
Guggulipid is known to be useful for hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, acne, and obesity. These activities are attributed to its two principal isomeric active constituents, viz., E- and Z-guggulsterones. There are several side effects reported for guggulipid, which include widespread erythematous papules in a morbilliform pattern and macules localized to the arms; swelling and erythema of the face with burning sensation; pruritis; and bullous lesions on the lower legs with associated headaches, myalgia and itching. We hypothesized that one probable reason for these toxic reactions could be the formation of electrophilic reactive metabolites (RMs) of guggulsterones and their subsequent reaction with cellular proteins. Unfortunately, no report exists in the literature highlighting detection of RMs of guggulsterone isomers. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of E- and Z-guggulsterones to form RMs in human liver microsomes (HLM) using glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as trapping agents. The generated samples were analysed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The analysis of incubations with trapping agents highlighted that hydroxylated metabolites of guggulsterone isomers showed adduction with GSH and NAC. Even direct adducts of guggulsterone isomers were observed with both the trapping agents. The in silico toxicity potential of E- and Z-guggulsterones and their RMs was predicted using ADMET Predictor™ software and comparison was made against reported toxicities of guggulipid.
PMID: 32247160 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]