Retinoic Acid and Lymphotoxin Signaling Promote Differentiation of Human Intestinal M Cells

Intestinal microfold (M) cells are a unique subset of intestinal epithelial cells in the Peyer’s patches that regulate mucosal immunity, serving as portals for sampling and uptake of luminal antigens. The inability to efficiently develop human M cells in cell culture has impeded studies of the intestinal immune system. We aimed to identify signaling pathways required for differentiation of human M cells and establish a robust culture system using human ileum enteroids.

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