Gender differences among ischemic heart disease patients enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program.

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Gender differences among ischemic heart disease patients enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program.

Egypt Heart J. 2020 Mar 30;72(1):15

Authors: El Missiri AM, Awadalla HM, Almoudi MM

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation programs reduce cardiovascular events and mortality in ischemic heart disease patients. The aim of this study was to assess gender differences among ischemic heart disease patients enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program regarding adherence to the program, as well as, changes in clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic parameters.
RESULTS: A prospective study that included 30 men and 30 women with stable ischemic heart disease who had been totally revascularized by percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were enrolled in a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation program. Assessment of demographics, anthropometric measurements, risk factors, and functional capacity was performed. Lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin, and left ventricular ejection fraction were assessed. Assessments were performed at baseline and after completion of the program. Time to enrollment in the program was prolonged for women 39.17 ± 40.49 vs. 19.77 ± 10.26 days (p = 0.014). At baseline, more women were diabetic (p = 0.004), hypertensive (p = 0.02), had a larger waist circumference (p = 0.022), a higher BMI (p = 0.011), and higher HbA1c (p = 0.033). More men were active smokers (p < 0.001). After completion of the program, it was found that men attended 19.1 ± 4.77 (79.6%) sessions compared to 15.7 ± 5.72 (65.4%) sessions for women (p = 0.015). Women had more reduction in diastolic BP – 10.93 ± 8.94 vs. – 5.47 ± 12.57 mmHg (p = 0.058). The magnitude of reduction in resting heart rate was significant in men (p = 0.018) but not in women (p = 0.376). The magnitude of reduction in serum total cholesterol and triglycerides was more in men (p = 0.018 and p = 0.014). Women showed more reduction in HbA1c (p = 0.052).
CONCLUSION: Men are more adherent to cardiac rehabilitation programs. Recruitment of women is significantly delayed. Women have a higher cardiovascular risk burden in the form of prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Completion of a cardiac rehabilitation program causes a reduction in BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure measurements, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c, and LVEDD with an increase in LVEF in both genders. Men show more reduction in resting HR, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels while women show more reduction in diastolic BP and HBA1c.

PMID: 32232591 [PubMed]

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