Ipr1 Regulation by Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase/Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 and Modulation of Irgm1 Expression via p53 [Research Article]

Intracellular pathogen resistance 1 (Ipr1) has been found to be a mediator to integrate cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)–interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), activated by intracellular pathogens, with the p53 pathway. Previous studies have shown the process of Ipr1 induction by various immune reactions, including intracellular bacterial and viral infections. The present study demonstrated that Ipr1 is regulated by the cGAS-IRF3 pathway during pathogenic infection. IRF3 was found to regulate Ipr1 expression by directly binding the interferon-stimulated response element motif of the Ipr1 promoter. Knockdown of Ipr1 decreased the expression of immunity-related GTPase family M member 1 (Irgm1), which plays critical roles in autophagy initiation. Irgm1 promoter characterization revealed a p53 motif in front of the transcription start site. P53 was found to participate in regulation of Irgm1 expression and IPR1-related effects on P53 stability by affecting interactions between ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11) and transformed mouse 3T3 cell double minute 2 (MDM2). Our results indicate that Ipr1 integrates cGAS-IRF3 with p53-modulated Irgm1 expression.

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