The double-edged sword of calcium hydroxide in endodontics: Precautions and preventive strategies for extrusion injuries into neurovascular anatomy.
J Am Dent Assoc. 2020 Mar 21;:
Authors: Gluskin AH, Lai G, Peters CI, Peters OA
BACKGROUND: Nowhere in the consideration of dental care involving endodontics does a patient become more vulnerable to potentially life-changing injuries than during a root canal procedure on the mandibular dentition that may invade and injure the neurovascular anatomy.
CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors present a series of 5 cases wherein using calcium hydroxide as a disinfection strategy in endodontics caused serious neurologic injury to the treated patients. The mechanism in all cases was the inappropriate use of needle applications resulting in significant overfill into the inferior alveolar nerve space. Although calcium hydroxide has been recognized and used as a meaningful disinfectant in endodontic therapy for many years, the dangers and risks associated with a needle delivery technique are discussed and analyzed with recommendations based on current research to minimize risk.
CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: A literature search revealed that the 5 cases are not solitary cases; indeed, consequences of calcium hydroxide overfills have been described before. Therefore, a clinician initiating root canal therapy on a mandibular posterior tooth should always be mindful of the vital neurovascular anatomy, which commonly approximates the ends of these roots. Preoperative cone-beam computed tomographic imaging and the thoughtful delivery of medicaments in treatment can help the clinician manage close proximity to neural anatomy and avoid potential injuries.
PMID: 32209246 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]