A Simple Standardized Three-Dimensional Anthropometry for the Periocular Region in a European Population

The three-dimensional surface imaging system is becoming more common in plastic surgeries. However, few studies have assessed three-dimensional periocular structures and surgical outcomes. This study aimed to propose a standardized three-dimensional anthropometric protocol for the periocular region, investigate its precision and accuracy, and determine the three-dimensional periocular anthropometric norms for young Caucasians.
Thirty-nine healthy young Caucasians (78 eyes) were enrolled. Three-dimensional facial images were obtained with a VECTRA M3 stereophotogrammetry device. Thirty-eight measurements in periocular regions were obtained from these images. Every subject underwent facial surface capture twice to evaluate its precision. A paper ruler was applied to assess its accuracy.
Sixty-three percent of measurements in linear distances, curvatures, angles, and indices were found to reach a statistically significant difference between sexes (p ≤ 0.05, respectively). Across all measurements, the average mean absolute difference was 0.29 mm in linear dimensions, 0.56 mm in curvatures, 1.67 degrees in angles, and 0.02 in indices. In relative error of magnitude, 18 percent of the measurements were determined excellent, 51 percent very good, 31 percent good, and none moderate. The mean value of the paper-ruler scale was 10.01 ± 0.05 mm, the mean absolute difference value 0.02 mm, and the relative error of magnitude 0.17 percent.
This is the first study to propose a detailed and standardized three-dimensional anthropometric protocol for the periocular region and confirm its high precision and accuracy. The results provided novel metric data concerning young Caucasian periocular anthropometry and determined the variability between sexes.

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