E3 Ubiquitin Ligase HRD1 Promotes Lung Tumorigenesis by Promoting Sirtuin 2 Ubiquitination and Degradation [Research Article]

The NAD-dependent histone deacetylase sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) plays critical roles in mitosis and cell cycle progression and recently was shown to suppress tumor growth and to be downregulated in several types of cancers. However, the underlying mechanism of SIRT2 downregulation remains unknown. In this study, using bioinformatics, gene expression profiling, protein overexpression approaches, and cell migration assays, we showed that E3 ubiquitin ligase 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase degradation 1 (HRD1) interacts with SIRT2 and promotes its ubiquitination and degradation. Furthermore, we found that HRD1 deficiency induces SIRT2 upregulation and inhibits the growth and tumor formation of lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Of note, we observed that SIRT2 expression is downregulated in human lung cancer and also negatively correlates with HRD1 expression in these cancers. Additionally, we found that patients with lung adenocarcinoma having lower HRD1 or higher SIRT2 expression levels tend to survive longer. On the basis of these results, we propose a mechanism of lung tumorigenesis that involves HRD1-mediated downregulation of SIRT2 and suggest that interventions targeting HRD1 activity could be a potential therapeutic strategy to treat patients with lung cancer.

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