by Delphine Gogendeau, Michel Lemullois, Pierrick Le Borgne, Manon Castelli, Anne Aubusson-Fleury, Olivier Arnaiz, Jean Cohen, Christine Vesque, Sylvie Schneider-Maunoury, Khaled Bouhouche, France Koll, Anne-Marie Tassin
Ciliary shedding occurs from unicellular organisms to metazoans. Although required during the cell cycle and during neurogenesis, the process remains poorly understood. In all cellular models, this phenomenon occurs distal to the transition zone (TZ), suggesting conserved molecular mechanisms. The TZ module proteins (Meckel Gruber syndrome [MKS]/Nephronophtysis [NPHP]/Centrosomal protein of 290 kDa [CEP290]/Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-Interacting Protein 1-Like Protein [RPGRIP1L]) are known to cooperate to establish TZ formation and function. To determine whether they control deciliation, we studied the function of 5 of them (Transmembrane protein 107 [TMEM107], Transmembrane protein 216 [TMEM216], CEP290, RPGRIP1L, and NPHP4) in Paramecium. All proteins are recruited to the TZ of growing cilia and localize with 9-fold symmetry at the level of the most distal part of the TZ. We demonstrate that depletion of the MKS2/TMEM216 and TMEM107 proteins induces constant deciliation of some cilia, while depletion of either NPHP4, CEP290, or RPGRIP1L prevents Ca2+/EtOH deciliation. Our results constitute the first evidence for a role of conserved TZ proteins in deciliation and open new directions for understanding motile cilia physiology.