From Diagnosis to Treatment of Pediatric Tuberculosis: Ten Years Experience in a Single Institution

Clinical Pediatrics, Ahead of Print.
Aim and Objectives. To describe the patient characteristics, clinical-epidemiologic-microbiologic profile, and treatment outcomes, and to draw attention to tuberculosis (TB) in Turkey. Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study was undertaken of 93 children aged 0 to 18 years who were admitted to Hacettepe University Pediatric Pulmonology Department for treatment from January 2005 to December 2015. Review of hospital records was performed for all children diagnosed as having TB. Results. Pulmonary TB was detected in 51.6% of the patients, extrapulmonary involvement in 33.3%, and pulmonary TB with extrapulmonary involvement in 15.1%. The history of contact with an adult with TB was found in 29% of cases. The most common extrapulmonary TB was TB lymphadenitis. The most common symptom was cough followed by fever and night sweats. One fifth of the patients had normal physical examinations at the time of diagnosis. One fifth (20.4%) of the patients had culture, 17.2% had polymerase chain reaction, and 15% had acid-resistant bacillus positivity. In 21.4% of patients with culture growth, at least one anti-TB drug resistance was found. The mean duration of treatment of patients treated according to the national guideline was 8.6 months (range = 6-36 months). Recovery was seen in 91.4% of patients. Conclusion. The most important way to prevent childhood TB is to fight adult TB through early diagnosis and effective treatment. The presence of contact history must direct us to search for TB. While evaluating children with persisted nonspecific symptoms, TB must be kept in mind even if physical examinations are normal.

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