Bacterial anti-microbial peptides and nano-sized drug delivery systems: The state of the art toward improved bacteriocins.
J Control Release. 2020 Feb 05;:
Authors: Radaic A, de Jesus MB, Kapila YL
Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are molecules consisting of 12-100 amino acids synthesized by certain microbes and released extracellularly to inhibit the growth of other microbes. Among the AMP molecules, bacteriocins are produced by both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species and are used to kill or inhibit other prokaryotes in the environment. Due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, some bacteriocins have the potential of becoming the next generation of antibiotics for use in the crisis of multi antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Recently, bacteriocins have even been used to treat cancer. However, bacteriocins present a few drawbacks, such as sensitivity to proteases, immunogenicity issues, and the development of bacteriocin resistance by pathogenic bacteria. In this regard, nanoscale drug delivery systems (Nano-DDS) have led to the expectation that they will eventually improve the treatment of many diseases by addressing these limitations and improving bacteriocin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Thus, combining bacteriocins with nano-DDS may be useful in overcoming these drawbacks and thereby reveal the full potential of bacteriocins. In this review article, we highlight the importance of tailoring nano-DDS to address bacteriocin limitations, the successes and failures of this technology thus far, the challenges that this technology still has to overcome before reaching the market, and future perspectives. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight, categorize, compare and contrast the different nano-DDS described in the literature so far, and compare their effectiveness in order to improve the next generation of bacteriocin nano-sized drug delivery systems (Nano-DDS).
PMID: 32035192 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]