Choice consequences: Salinity preferences and hatchling survival in the mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) [RESEARCH ARTICLE]

Shelly C. McCain, Sydney Kopelic, Thomas M. Houslay, Alastair J. Wilson, Huanda Lu, and Ryan L. Earley

In heterogeneous environments, mobile species should occupy habitats in which their fitness is maximized. Mangrove rivulus fish inhabit mangrove ecosystems where salinities range from 0–65 ppt but are most often collected at ~25 ppt. We examined rivulus’ salinity preference in a lateral salinity gradient, in the absence of predators and competitors. Fish could swim freely for 8 hours throughout the gradient with chambers containing salinities from 5–45 ppt (or 25 ppt throughout, control). We defined preference as the salinity in which the fish spent most of their time, and also measured preference strength, latency to begin exploring the arena, and number of transitions between chambers. To determine whether these traits were repeatable, each fish experienced three trials. Rivulus spent a greater proportion of time in salinities lower (5-15 ppt) than they occupy in the wild. Significant among-individual variation in the (multivariate) behavioral phenotype emerged when animals experienced the gradient, indicating strong potential for selection to drive behavioral evolution in areas with diverse salinity microhabitats. We also showed that rivulus had a significantly greater probability of laying eggs in low salinities compared to control or high salinities. Eggs laid in lower salinities also had higher hatching success compared to those laid in higher salinities. Thus, although rivulus can tolerate a wide range of salinities, they prefer low salinities. These results raise questions about factors that prevent rivulus from occupying lower salinities in the wild, whether higher salinities impose energetic costs, and whether fitness changes as a function of salinity.

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