by Yinghong Pan, Heather Ballance, Huan Meng, Naomi Gonzalez, Sam-Moon Kim, Leymaan Abdurehman, Brian York, Xi Chen, Yisrael Schnytzer, Oren Levy, Clifford C. Dacso, Colleen A. McClung, Bert W. O’Malley, Silvia Liu, Bokai Zhu
Our group recently characterized a cell-autonomous mammalian 12-h clock independent from the circadian clock, but its function and mechanism of regulation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that in mouse liver, transcriptional regulation significantly contributes to the establishment of 12-h rhythms of mRNA expression in a manner dependent on Spliced Form of X-box Binding Protein 1 (XBP1s). Mechanistically, the motif stringency of XBP1s promoter binding sites dictates XBP1s’s ability to drive 12-h rhythms of nascent mRNA transcription at dawn and dusk, which are enriched for basal transcription regulation, mRNA processing and export, ribosome biogenesis, translation initiation, and protein processing/sorting in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)-Golgi in a temporal order consistent with the progressive molecular processing sequence described by the central dogma information flow (CEDIF). We further identified GA-binding proteins (GABPs) as putative novel transcriptional regulators driving 12-h rhythms of gene expression with more diverse phases. These 12-h rhythms of gene expression are cell autonomous and evolutionarily conserved in marine animals possessing a circatidal clock. Our results demonstrate an evolutionarily conserved, intricate network of transcriptional control of the mammalian 12-h clock that mediates diverse biological pathways. We speculate that the 12-h clock is coopted to accommodate elevated gene expression and processing in mammals at the two rush hours, with the particular genes processed at each rush hour regulated by the circadian and/or tissue-specific pathways.