Probabilistic Reasoning across the Causal Hierarchy. (arXiv:2001.02889v1 [cs.LO])

We propose a formalization of the three-tier causal hierarchy of association,
intervention, and counterfactuals as a series of probabilistic logical
languages. Our languages are of strictly increasing expressivity, the first
capable of expressing quantitative probabilistic reasoning---including
conditional independence and Bayesian inference---the second encoding
do-calculus reasoning for causal effects, and the third capturing a fully
expressive do-calculus for arbitrary counterfactual queries. We give a
corresponding series of finitary axiomatizations complete over both structural
causal models and probabilistic programs, and show that satisfiability and
validity for each language are decidable in polynomial space.

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