To determine the incidence, correlates, and consequences of acute kidney injury (AKI) among children hospitalized with diarrheal illness in the United States.
Using data from Kids’ Inpatient Database in 2009 and 2012, we studied children hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of diarrheal illness (weighted N = 113 195). We used the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, diagnosis codes 584.5 to 584.9 to capture AKI. We calculated the incidence, correlates, and consequences (mortality, length of stay [LOS], and costs) of AKI associated with hospitalized diarrheal illness using stepwise logistic regression and generalized linear models.
The average incidence of AKI in children hospitalized with diarrheal illness was 0.8%. Hospital location and teaching status were associated with the odds of AKI, as were older age, solid organ transplant, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and rheumatologic and hematologic conditions. The development of AKI in hospitalized diarrheal illness was associated with an eightfold increase in the odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.2–15.4). AKI was associated with prolonged LOS (mean increase 3.0 days; 95% CI 2.3–3.8) and higher hospital cost (mean increase $9241; 95% CI $4661–$13 820).
Several demographic factors and comorbid conditions are associated with the risk of AKI in children hospitalized with diarrheal illness. Although rare, development of AKI in this common pediatric condition is associated with increased mortality, LOS, and hospital cost.