Affinity, binding kinetics and functional characterization of draflazine analogues for human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (SLC29A1).
Biochem Pharmacol. 2019 Dec 09;:113747
Authors: Vlachodimou A, Konstantinopoulou K, IJzerman AP, Heitman LH
In the last decade it has been recapitulated that receptor-ligand binding kinetics is a relevant additional parameter in drug discovery to improve in vivo drug efficacy and safety. The equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (ENT1, SLC29A1) is an important drug target, as transporter inhibition is a potential treatment of ischemic heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Currently, two non-selective ENT1 inhibitors (dilazep and dipyridamole) are on the market as vasodilators. However, their binding kinetics are unknown; moreover, novel, more effective and selective inhibitors are still needed. Hence, this study focused on the incorporation of binding kinetics for finding new and improved ENT1 inhibitors. We developed a radioligand competition association assay to determine the binding kinetics of ENT1 inhibitors with four chemical scaffolds (including dilazep and dipyridamole). The kinetic parameters were compared to the affinities obtained from a radioligand displacement assay. Three of the scaffolds presented high affinities with relatively fast dissociation kinetics, yielding short to moderate residence times (RTs) at the protein (1-44 min). While compounds from the fourth scaffold, i.e. draflazine analogues, also had high affinity, they displayed significantly longer RTs, with one analogue (4) having a RT of over 10 h. Finally, a label-free assay was used to evaluate the impact of divergent ENT1 inhibitor binding kinetics in a functional assay. It was shown that the potency of compound 4 increased with longer incubation times, which was not observed for draflazine, supporting the importance of long RT for increased target-occupancy and effect. In conclusion, our research shows that high affinity ENT1 inhibitors show a large variation in residence times at this transport protein. As a consequence, incorporation of binding kinetic parameters adds to the design criteria and may thus result in a different lead compound selection. Taken together, this kinetic approach could inspire future drug discovery in the field of ENT1 and membrane transport proteins in general.
PMID: 31830468 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]