Preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA) are major contributors to neonatal mortality in India. However, social determinates of preterm births and SGA are poorly characterized. We use population-based data from a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in rural West Bengal, India, to examine risk factors for preterm birth and SGA. HDSS pregnancy cohort data for 2430 pregnant women were used in this analysis. Of 2430 pregnancies, 16% were preterm births and 38.2% were SGA. Results from logistic regression reveal that higher maternal education (≥11 years) was associated with reduced risk of preterm births and SGA. Greater wealth quintile was also associated with decreased risk of preterm births and SGA (p-value for trend: <0.05). In light of the findings, ensuring effective coverage of preterm and SGA interventions among women of low socioeconomic status will be essential to mitigate the large burden of preterm births and SGA.