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Machine Learning-Based Prediction Models for 30-Day Readmission after Hospitalization for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

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Machine Learning-Based Prediction Models for 30-Day Readmission after Hospitalization for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

COPD. 2019 Nov 11;:1-6

Authors: Goto T, Jo T, Matsui H, Fushimi K, Hayashi H, Yasunaga H

Abstract
While machine learning approaches can enhance prediction ability, little is known about their ability to predict 30-day readmission after hospitalization for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We identified patients aged ≥40 years with unplanned hospitalization due to COPD in the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, an administrative claims database in Japan, from 2011 through 2016 (index hospitalizations). COPD was defined by ICD-10-CM diagnostic codes, according to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) readmission measures. The primary outcome was any readmission within 30 days after index hospitalization. In the training set (randomly-selected 70% of sample), patient characteristics and inpatient care data were used as predictors to derive a conventional logistic regression model and two machine learning models (lasso regression and deep neural network). In the test set (remaining 30% of sample), the prediction performances of the machine learning models were examined by comparison with the reference model based on CMS readmission measures. Among 44,929 index hospitalizations for COPD, 3413 (7%) were readmitted within 30 days after discharge. The reference model had the lowest discrimination ability (C-statistic: 0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.59]). The two machine learning models had moderate, significantly higher discrimination ability (C-statistic: lasso regression, 0.61 [95% CI 0.59-0.61], p = 0.004; deep neural network, 0.61 [95% CI 0.59-0.63], p = 0.007). Tube feeding duration, blood transfusion, thoracentesis use, and male sex were important predictors. In this study using nationwide administrative data in Japan, machine learning models improved the prediction of 30-day readmission after COPD hospitalization compared with a conventional model.AbbreviationsADLactivities of daily livingCOPDchronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseCMSCenters for Medicare and Medicaid ServicesDPCDiagnosis Procedure CombinationICD-10-CMInternational Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical ModificationROCreceiver-operating-characteristic.

PMID: 31709851 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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