OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate variation in resource use for children with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI) by vaccination status.

METHODS:

We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children 0 to 16 years of age at 5 children’s hospitals with 1 of 4 ARTI diagnoses (pneumonia, croup, asthma, and bronchiolitis) between July 2014 and June 2016. The predictor variable was provider-documented up-to-date (UTD) vaccination status (yes or no). Outcomes were receipt of each of the following tests or treatments (yes or no): complete blood cell count, blood cultures, C-reactive protein (CRP) level testing, viral testing, influenza testing, pertussis testing, chest radiographs, neck radiographs, antibiotics, and corticosteroids. We generated multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between our predictor and outcomes.

RESULTS:

Of the 2302 participants included in analysis, 568 (25%) were diagnosed with pneumonia, 343 (15%) were diagnosed with croup, 653 (28%) were diagnosed with asthma, and 738 (32%) were diagnosed with bronchiolitis. Most (92%) vaccination statuses were documented as UTD. Across conditions, children whose vaccination status was documented as not UTD had higher adjusted odds of receiving a complete blood cell count, blood culture, CRP level testing, and influenza testing (P < .001). Children with pneumonia whose vaccination status was documented as not UTD had higher adjusted odds of receiving CRP level testing and influenza testing (P < .001). Children with croup whose vaccination status was documented as not UTD had higher adjusted odds of receiving blood cultures (P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Children with ARTI whose vaccination status was documented as not UTD had higher odds of undergoing laboratory testing compared with children whose vaccination status was documented as UTD.

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