Allergy to peanut, which is often severe, is one of the most common food allergies in the United States. Although previous studies have shown that peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT)—ingesting small, controlled amounts of peanut protein—can desensitize adults and children and prevent life-threatening allergic reactions, the optimal duration and dose is unknown. In a study that followed participants after OIT successfully desensitized them to peanut, discontinuing OIT or continuing OIT at a reduced dose led to a decline in its protective effects. The study, published online today in The Lancet, also found that several blood tests administered before OIT could predict the success of therapy. The Phase 2 study was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the NIH, and may inform who may benefit from peanut OIT and what changes in this experimental treatment should be implemented.

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