Serial brain MRI changes related to autoimmune pathophysiology in Hashimoto encephalopathy with anti-NAE antibodies: A case-series study

Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) is an autoimmune-mediated encephalopathy associated with anti-thyroid antibodies. We previously discovered serum autoantibodies against the NH2-terminal of α-enolase (NAE), which serve as a specific diagnostic biomarker for HE and may be involved in the autoimmune pathophysiology of HE, including vasculitis. Although the common findings of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in HE have been recognized as normal or non-specific white matter lesions, serial MRI changes have been less well studied.

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