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Diuretic Resistance in Cardio-Nephrology: Role of Pharmacokinetics, Hypochloremia, and Kidney Remodeling.

Kidney Blood Press Res. 2019 Aug 22;:1-13

Authors: Masella C, Viggiano D, Molfino I, Zacchia M, Capolongo G, Anastasio P, Simeoni M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Diuretic resistance is among the most challenging problems that the cardio-nephrologist must address in daily clinical practice, with a considerable burden on hospital admissions and health care costs. Indeed, loop diuretics are the first-line therapy to overcome fluid overload in heart failure patients. The pathophysiological mechanisms of fluid and sodium retention are complex and depend on several neuro-hormonal signals mainly acting on sodium reabsorption along the renal tubule. Consequently, doses and administration modalities of diuretics must be carefully tailored to patients in order to overcome under- or overtreatment. The frequent and tricky development of diuretic resistance depends in part on post-diuretic sodium retention, reduced tubular secretion of the drug, and reduced sodium/chloride sensing. Sodium and chloride depletions have been recently shown to be major factors mediating these processes. Aquaretics and high-saline infusions have been recently suggested in cases of hyponatremic conditions. This review discusses the limitations and strengths of these approaches.
SUMMARY: Long-term diuretic use may lead to diuretic resistance in cardio-renal syndromes. To overcome this complication intravenous administration of loop diuretics and a combination of different diuretic classes have been proposed. In the presence of hyponatremia, high-saline solutions in addition to loop diuretics might be beneficial, whereas aquaretics require caution to avoid overcorrection. Key Messages: Diuretic resistance is a central theme for cardio-renal syndromes. Hyponatremia and hypochloremia may be part of the mechanisms for diuretic resistance. Aquaretics and high-saline solutions have been proposed as possible new therapeutic solutions.

PMID: 31437845 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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