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Abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with Fontan circulation: Unique characteristics and associations with Fontan pathophysiology.

Am Heart J. 2019 Jul 26;216:125-135

Authors: Ohuchi H, Negishi J, Hayama Y, Miike H, Suzuki D, Nakajima K, Konagai N, Iwasa T, Sakaguchi H, Kurosaki K, Nakai M

BACKGROUND: Fontan patients exhibit a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM). We aimed to characterize AGM and clarify its association with Fontan pathophysiology.
METHODS: We prospectively evaluated AGM with plasma glucose dynamics [mg/dL; fasting glucose (FPG), and maximum glucose increase (PG-spike)] during oral glucose tolerance test and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in 276 consecutive Fontan patients (aged 19 ± 7 years). Of these, 176 patients had serial AGM assessments with a mean interval of 6.5 years.
RESULTS: Initial analysis revealed a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (38.4%) and diabetes mellitus (DM) (4.7%), and positive family history, high HbA1c, and high central venous pressure independently predicted presence of DM. HbA1c was independently determined by hypersplenism and presence of DM (P < .05). Serial assessments revealed an increased PG-spike and a decreased HbA1c (P < .001 for both). Prevalence of DM increased (6.3% to 10.3%), and positive family history, high liver enzymes, and AGM predicted new onset of DM (P < .05 for all). Twenty-one patients died during 7.1-year follow-up. FPG (P < .01) and PG-spike (P < .05) independently predicted all-cause mortality. Particularly, patients with FPG ≤ 74 and/or PG-spike ≥85 had a mortality rate 8.7 times higher than those without (P = .0129).
CONCLUSIONS: AGM progressed even in young adult Fontan patients, and HbA1c showed limited predictive value for progression. Oral glucose tolerance test plays important roles in uncovering unique Fontan AGM as well as predicting all-cause mortality.

PMID: 31425899 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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