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A solid lipid nanoparticle formulation of 4-(N)-docosahexaenoyl 2′, 2′-difluorodeoxycytidine with increased solubility, stability, and antitumor activity.

Int J Pharm. 2019 Aug 12;:118609

Authors: Valdes SA, Alzhrani RF, Rodriguez A, Lansakara-P DSP, Thakkar SG, Cui Z

Abstract
Previously, we synthesized 4-(N)-docosahexaenoyl 2′, 2′-difluorodeoxycytidine (DHA-dFdC), a novel lipophilic compound with a potent, broad-spectrum antitumor activity. Herein, we report a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulation of DHA-dFdC with improved apparent aqueous solubility, chemical stability, as well as efficacy in a mouse model. The SLNs were prepared from lecithin/glycerol monostearate-in-water emulsions emulsified with D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) and Tween 20. The resultant DHA-dFdC-SLNs were 102.2 ± 7.3 nm in diameter and increased the apparent solubility of DHA-dFdC in water to at least 5.2 mg/mL, more than 200-fold higher than its intrinsic water solubility. DHA-dFdC in a lyophilized powder of DHA-dFdC-SLNs was significantly more stable than the waxy solid of pure DHA-dFdC. DHA-dFdC-SLNs also showed an increased cytotoxicity against certain tumor cells than DHA-dFdC. The plasma concentration of DHA-dFdC in mice intravenously injected with DHA-dFdC-SLNs in dispersion followed a bi-exponential model, with a half-life of ∼44 h. In mice bearing B16-F10 murine melanoma, DHA-dFdC-SLNs were significantly more effective than DHA-dFdC in controlling the tumor growth. In addition, histology evaluation revealed a high level of apoptosis and tumor encapsulation in tumors in mice treated with DHA-dFdC-SLNs. DHA-dFdC-SLNs represents a new DHA-dFdC formulation with improved antitumor activity.

PMID: 31415878 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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