Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effectors Target Parallel Steps in an Immune Signal Transduction Pathway

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans delivers Arg-X-Leu-Arg (RXLR) effector proteins into host cells to subvert plant immune responses and promote colonization. We show that transient expression and stable transgenic expression of the RXLR effector Pi22926 in Nicotiana benthamiana promotes leaf colonization by P. infestans. Pi22926 suppresses cell death triggered by coexpression of the Cladosporium fulvum avirulence protein Avr4 and the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) resistance protein Cf4. Pi22926 interacts with a potato mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, StMAP3Kβ2, in the nucleoplasm. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the ortholog NbMAP3Kβ2 in N. benthamiana enhances P. infestans colonization and attenuates Cf4/Avr4-induced cell death, indicating that this host protein is a positive regulator of immunity. Cell death induced by Cf4/Avr4 is dependent on NbMAP3K and NbMAP3Kβ2, indicating that these MAP3Ks function in the same signaling pathway. VIGS of NbMAP3Kβ2 does not compromise cell death triggered by overexpression of MAP3K. Similarly, VIGS of NbMAP3K does not attenuate cell death triggered by MAP3Kβ2, demonstrating that these MAP3K proteins function in parallel. In agreement, Pi22926 or another RXLR effector, PexRD2, only suppresses cell death triggered by expression of StMAP3Kβ2 or StMAP3K, respectively. Our data reveal that two P. infestans effectors, PexRD2 and Pi22926, promote P. infestans colonization by targeting MAP3K proteins that act in parallel in the same signal transduction pathway.

Source link

Related posts

Portland State study shows ways to reduce extreme heat in city neighborhoods


Spring Weeds in the Mustard Family


How some heart cells cope with high blood pressure


This website uses cookies to improve your experience. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Accept Read More

Privacy & Cookies Policy


COVID-19 (Coronavirus) is a new illness that is having a major effect on all businesses globally LIVE COVID-19 STATISTICS FOR World

WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!
👋 Hi, how can I help?