Endoreduplication, the replication of the nuclear genome in the absence of mitosis, is often associated with cell growth and differentiation in plants and animals, but the molecular mechanisms underlying endoreduplication in plants have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the Mediator complex subunit MED16 acts as a negative regulator of endoreduplication to influence cell growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The med16 mutant exhibits larger and more numerous cells than the wild type, resulting in enlarged organs. The large cells in med16 are associated with high DNA ploidy levels. MED16 associates with the promoters of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome activators CELL CYCLE SWITCH52 A1 (CCS52A1) and CCS52A2 (encoding important factors for endoreduplication and cell growth) and represses their expression. MED16 interacts physically with the transcriptional repressor DEL1 to repress the expression of CCS52A2. Genetic analysis suggested that MED16 is partially dependent on CCS52A1/A2 to control endoreduplication and cell growth. Our results indicate that the transcriptional repression of CCS52A1/A2 by MED16 regulates endoreduplication and cell growth in Arabidopsis.

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