Preterm infants are at increased risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. The impact of maternal, NICU, and social environmental factors on early neurobehavior and language outcomes of preterm infants is recognized. There is a need for health care professionals to have a clear understanding of the importance of facilitating positive mother-infant relationships, and to address not only the infant’s sensory and language environment, but also focus on adverse maternal mental health and social adversities to optimize infant outcomes.

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