Maggie Raboin and Damian O. Elias
Anthropogenic noise is an important issue of environmental concern owing to its wide-ranging effects on the physiology, behavior and ecology of animals. To date, research has focused on the impacts of far-field airborne noise (i.e. pressure waves) on vertebrates, with few exceptions. However, invertebrates and the other acoustic modalities they rely on, primarily near-field airborne and substrate-borne sound (i.e. particle motion and vibrations, respectively) have received little attention. Here, we review the literature on the impacts of different types of anthropogenic noise (airborne far-field, airborne near-field, substrate-borne) on terrestrial invertebrates. Using literature on invertebrate bioacoustics, we propose a framework for understanding the potential impact of anthropogenic noise on invertebrates and outline predictions of possible constraints and adaptations for invertebrates in responding to anthropogenic noise. We argue that understanding the impacts of anthropogenic noise requires us to consider multiple modalities of sound and to cultivate a broader understanding of invertebrate bioacoustics.