Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a substantially increased risk for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Accordingly, cardiovascular mortality is increased even in the earliest stages of CKD. In the general population and in CKD patients, high plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are crucially involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic vascular lesions. In addition, it has been documented that LDL accumulating in the vascular wall is prone to be post-translationally modified, for example, by oxidation or carbamylation, which is particularly relevant to patients with CKD.

Source link