From Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin in 1928 to the recent awarding of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology to Tasuku Honjo for his work with James Allison on immune checkpoints, physician-scientists have made and continue to make critical contributions to biomedical research. These include internists working in neuroscience such as Roderick MacKinnon, Robert Lefkowitz, and Brian Kobilka and physician-scientists trained in neurology such as Stanley Prusiner and David Hubel. With only 1.5% of physicians conducting research as their primary profession1 and competing with a much larger pool of PhDs, a compelling case can be made for why this small pool of physicians must be maintained and expanded.

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