Myelin-associated glycoprotein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix can prevent regeneration of injured axons. In this issue, Kalinski et al. (2019. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201702187) report that inhibition of HDAC6 prevents the deacetylation of Miro1, increases mitochondrial axonal transport, and restores the size of axonal growth cones.