Tweety-homolog (Ttyh) Family Encodes the Pore-forming Subunits of the Swelling-dependent Volume-regulated Anion Channel (VRACswell) in the Brain.
Exp Neurobiol. 2019 Apr;28(2):183-215
Authors: Han YE, Kwon J, Won J, An H, Jang MW, Woo J, Lee JS, Park MG, Yoon BE, Lee SE, Hwang EM, Jung JY, Park H, Oh SJ, Lee CJ
In the brain, a reduction in extracellular osmolality causes water-influx and swelling, which subsequently triggers Cl– and osmolytes-efflux via volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC). Although LRRC8 family has been recently proposed as the pore-forming VRAC which is activated by low cytoplasmic ionic strength but not by swelling, the molecular identity of the pore-forming swelling-dependent VRAC (VRACswell) remains unclear. Here we identify and characterize Tweety-homologs (TTYH1, TTYH2, TTYH3) as the major VRACswell in astrocytes. Gene-silencing of all Ttyh1/2/3 eliminated hypo-osmotic-solution-induced Cl- conductance (ICl,swell) in cultured and hippocampal astrocytes. When heterologously expressed in HEK293T or CHO-K1 cells, each TTYH isoform showed a significant ICl,swell with similar aquaporin-4 dependency, pharmacological properties and glutamate permeability as ICl,swell observed in native astrocytes. Mutagenesis-based structure-activity analysis revealed that positively charged arginine residue at 165 in TTYH1 and 164 in TTYH2 is critical for the formation of the channel-pore. Our results demonstrate that TTYH family confers the bona fide VRACswell in the brain.
PMID: 31138989 [PubMed]