Hossein Shirvani, Saleh Rahmati-Ahmadabad, David Robert Broom, and Reza Mirnejad

The hypothalamus controls metabolism and feeding behaviour via several signals with other tissues. Exercise and supplements can change hypothalamic signalling pathways, so the present study investigated the influence of eccentric resistance training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation on PGC-1α expression, serum irisin, nesfatin-1 and resistin concentrations. Thirty-two male rats (8 weeks old, 200±17 g body mass) were randomly allocated to control, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation (HMB), eccentric resistance training (ERT), and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation plus eccentric resistance training (HMB+ERT) groups. Training groups undertook eccentric resistance training (6 weeks, 3 times a week) and supplement groups consumed β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) orally (76 mg kg–1 day–1). Twenty-four hours after the last training session, serum and triceps brachii muscle samples were collected and sent to the laboratory for analysis. Two-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation were employed (significance level: P<0.05). The results showed that eccentric resistance training increases skeletal muscle PGC-1α gene expression, as well as serum levels of irisin and nesfatin-1 (P=0.001). Eccentric resistance training decreased the serum concentration of resistin (P=0.001). HMB-FA supplementation increased skeletal muscle PGC-1α gene expression (P=0.002), as well as the serum concentration of irisin and nesfatin-1 (P=0.001), but decreased the serum concentration of resistin (P=0.001). Significant correlations were observed between PGC-1α gene expression and serum concentrations of irisin, nesfatin-1 and resistin. HMB-FA supplementation with eccentric resistance training may induce crosstalk between peptide release from other tissues and increases maximal muscle strength. The combination of the two interventions had a more substantial effect than each in isolation.

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