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Causes and mechanisms of isolated mitral regurgitation in the community: clinical context and outcome.

Eur Heart J. 2019 May 23;:

Authors: Dziadzko V, Dziadzko M, Medina-Inojosa JR, Benfari G, Michelena HI, Crestanello JA, Maalouf J, Thapa P, Enriquez-Sarano M

Abstract
AIMS: To define the hitherto unknown aetiology/mechanism distributions of mitral regurgitation (MR) in the community and the linked clinical characteristics/outcomes.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified all isolated, moderate/severe MR diagnosed in our community (Olmsted County, MN, USA) between 2000 and 2010 and classified MR aetiology/mechanisms. Eligible patients (n = 727) were 73 ± 18 years, 51% females, with ejection fraction (EF) 49 ± 17%. MR was functional (FMR) in 65%, organic (OMR) in 32% and 2% mixed. Functional MR was linked to left ventricular remodelling (FMR-v) 38% and isolated atrial dilatation (FMR-a) 27%. At diagnosis FMR-v vs. FMR-a, vs. OMR displayed profound differences (all P < 0.0001) in age (73 ± 14, 80 ± 10, 68 ± 21years), male-sex (59, 33, 51%), atrial-fibrillation (28, 54, 13%), EF (33 ± 14, 57 ± 11, 61 ± 10%), and regurgitant-volume (38 ± 13, 37 ± 11, 51 ± 24 mL/beat). Dominant MR mechanism was Type I (normal valve-movement) 38%, Type II (excessive valve-movement) 25%, Type IIIa (diastolic movement-restriction) 3%, and Type IIIb (systolic movement-restriction) 34%. Outcomes were mediocre with excess-mortality vs. general-population in FMR-v [risk ratio 3.45 (2.98-3.99), P < 0.0001] but also FMR-a [risk ratio 1.88 (1.52-2.25), P < 0.0001] and OMR [risk ratio 1.83 (1.50-2.22), P < 0.0001]. Heart failure was frequent, particularly in FMR-v (5-year 83 ± 3% vs. 59 ± 4% FMR-a, 40 ± 3% OMR, P < 0.0001). Mitral surgery during patients’ lifetime was performed in 4% of FMR-v, 3% of FMR-a, and 37% of OMR.
CONCLUSION: Moderate/severe isolated MR in the community displays considerable aetiology/mechanism heterogeneity. Functional MR dominates, mostly FMR-v but FMR-a is frequent and degenerative MR dominates OMR. Outcomes are mediocre with excess-mortality particularly with FMR-v but FMR-a, despite normal EF incurs notable excess-mortality and frequent heart failure. Pervasive undertreatment warrants clinical trials of therapies tailored to specific MR cause/mechanisms.

PMID: 31121021 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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