Learning objectives

  • Recognise risk factors and presentation features of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) device infection.

  • Formulate a diagnostic and management plan for patients with suspected CIED infection.

  • Provide an overview of device removal surgery and antimicrobial therapy for patients with CIED infections.

  • Introduction

    As our population ages with the increasing prevalence of comorbidities, and indication for cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) expand for treatment of heart failure, bradyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death prevention, there is a simultaneous increase in associated device infections.1 The incidence of CIED infections is around 1% to 2% among reported observational and registry studies.2 3 These device infections are associated with significant morbidity, increased long-term mortality and associated healthcare costs.4 Rates of CIED infection are higher with device replacement or upgrade procedure and thoracotomy implants.5 There are several…

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