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Modulation of ADAR mRNA expression in patients with congenital heart defects.

PLoS One. 2019;14(4):e0200968

Authors: Altaf F, Vesely C, Sheikh AM, Munir R, Shah STA, Tariq A

Abstract
Adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing is a hydrolytic deamination reaction catalyzed by the adenosine deaminase (ADAR) enzyme acting on double-stranded RNA. This posttranscriptional process diversifies a plethora of transcripts, including coding and noncoding RNAs. Interestingly, few studies have been carried out to determine the role of RNA editing in vascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of ADARs in congenital heart disease. Strong downregulation of ADAR2 and increase in ADAR1 expression was observed in blood samples from congenital heart disease (CHD) patients. The decrease in expression of ADAR2 was in line with its downregulation in ventricular tissues of dilated cardiomyopathy patients. To further decipher the plausible regulatory pathway of ADAR2 with respect to heart physiology, miRNA profiling of ADAR2 was performed on tissues from ADAR2-/- mouse hearts. Downregulation of miRNAs (miR-29b, miR-405, and miR-19) associated with cardiomyopathy and cardiac fibrosis was observed. Moreover, the upregulation of miR-29b targets COL1A2 and IGF1, indicated that ADAR2 might be involved in cardiac myopathy. The ADAR2 target vascular development associated protein-coding gene filamin B (FLNB) was selected. The editing levels of FLNB were dramatically reduced in ADAR2-/- mice; however, no observable changes in FLNB expression were noted in ADAR2-/- mice compared to wild-type mice. This study proposes that sufficient ADAR2 enzyme activity might play a vital role in preventing cardiovascular defects.

PMID: 31039163 [PubMed – in process]

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