Potential Mechanisms of Target-Independent Uptake and Toxicity of Antibody-Drug Conjugates.
Pharmacol Ther. 2019 Apr 24;:
Authors: Mahalingaiah PK, Ciurlionis R, Durbin KR, Yeager RL, Philip BK, Bawa B, Mantena SR, Enright BP, Liguori MJ, Van Vleet TR
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a promising therapeutic modality for oncology indications. The concept of an ADC platform is to increase the therapeutic index (TI) of chemotherapeutics through more selective delivery of cytotoxic agents to tumor cells while limiting exposure to healthy normal cells. Despite the use of antibodies targeting antigens abundantly and/or exclusively expressed on cancer cells (i.e., target cells), dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) in normal cells/tissues are frequently reported even at suboptimal therapeutic doses. Although advancement of ADC technology has helped to optimize all three key components (i.e., mAb, linker, and payload), DLTs remain a key challenge for ADC development. Mechanisms of ADC toxicity in normal cells/tissues are not clearly understood, but the majority of DLTs are considered to be target-independent. In addition to linker-drug instability contributing to the premature release of cytotoxic drug (payload) in circulation, uptake/trafficking of intact ADCs by both receptor-dependent (FcγRs, FcRn and C-type lectin receptors), and-independent (non-specific endocytosis) mechanisms may contribute to off-target toxicity in normal cells. In this article, we review potential mechanisms of target-independent ADC uptake and toxicity in normal cells, as well as discuss components of ADCs which may influence these mechanisms. This information will provide a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ADC off-target toxicity and prove helpful toward improving the overall TI of the next generation of ADCs.
PMID: 31028836 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]