Older adults ≥75 years of age carry an increased risk of mortality after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock.
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in older adults with STEMI and shock and its influence on in-hospital mortality.
We used a large publicly available all-payer inpatient health care database sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality between 1999 and 2013. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The influence of PCI on in-hospital mortality was assessed by quintiles of propensity score (PS).
Of the 317,728 encounters with STEMI and shock in the United States, 111,901 (35%) were adults age ≥75 years. Of these, 53% were women and 83% were Caucasians. The median number of chronic conditions was 8 (interquartile range: 6 to 10). The diagnosis of STEMI and cardiogenic shock in older patients decreased significantly over time (proportion of older adults with STEMI and shock: 1999: 42% vs. 2013: 29%). Concomitantly, the rate of PCI utilization in older adults increased (1999: 27% vs. 2013: 56%, p < 0.001), with declining in-hospital mortality rates (1999: 64% vs. 2013: 46%; p < 0.001). Utilizing PS matching methods, PCI was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality across quintiles of propensity score (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio: 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 to 0.51). This reduction in hospital mortality risk was seen across the 4 different U.S. census bureau regions (adjusted odds ratio: Northeast: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.47; Midwest: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.57; South: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.56; West: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.41 to 0.53).
This large and contemporary analysis shows that utilization of PCI in older adults with STEMI and cardiogenic shock is increasing and paralleled by a substantial reduction in mortality. Although clinical judgment is critical, older adults should not be excluded from early revascularization based on age in the absence of absolute contraindications.