Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the leading cause of cardioembolic stroke (CES), and patients with stroke and AF are frequently assumed to have CES. However, strokes presumably due to atherosclerotic pathophysiologies in large or small vessels can also occur in patients with AF. The aims of the present study were to clarify the prevalence of and factors related to a non-cardioembolic etiology in acute stroke patients with AF.

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