Double orifice and atrioventricular septal defect: dealing with the zone of apposition†.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2019 Mar 20;:
Authors: Pontailler M, Haidar M, Méot M, Moreau de Bellaing A, Gaudin R, Houyel L, Metton O, Moceri P, Bonnet D, Vouhé P, Raisky O
OBJECTIVES: A double orifice of the left atrioventricular valve (LAVV) associated with atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) can significantly complicate surgical repair. This study reports our experience of AVSD repair over 3 decades, with special attention to the zone of apposition (ZoA) of the main orifice, and presents a technique of hemivalve pericardial extension in specific situations.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective study from 1987 to 2016 on 1067 patients with AVSD of whom 43 (4%) had a double orifice, plus 2 additional patients who required LAVV pericardial enlargement. Median age at repair was 1.3 years. Mean follow-up was 8.2 years (1 month-32 years).
RESULTS: Associated abnormalities of the LAVV subvalvular apparatus were found in 7 patients (5 parachute LAVV and 2 absence of LAVV subvalvular apparatus). ZoA was noted in 4 patients (9%): partially closed in 15 (35%) and completely closed in 24 (56%). Four patients required, either at first repair or secondarily, a hemivalve enlargement using a pericardial patch without closure of the ZoA. The early mortality rate was 7% (n = 3), all before 2000. Two patients had unbalanced ventricles and the third had a single papillary muscle. There were no late deaths. Six patients (14%) required 7 reoperations (3 early and 4 late reoperations) for LAVV regurgitation and/or dysfunction, of whom 4 (9%) required mechanical LAVV replacement (all before 2000). Freedom from late LAVV reoperation was 97% at 1 year, 94% at 5 years and 87% at 10, 20 and 30 years. Unbalanced ventricles (P = 0.045), subvalvular abnormalities (P = 0.0037) and grade >2 LAVV postoperative regurgitation (P = 0.017) were identified as risk factors for LAVV reoperations. Freedom from LAVV mechanical valve replacement was 95% at 1 year, 90% at 5 years and 85% at 10, 20 and 30 years. An anomalous LAVV subvalvular apparatus was identified as a risk factor for mechanical valve replacement (P = 0.010). None of the patients who underwent LAVV pericardial extension had significant LAVV regurgitation at the last follow-up examination.
CONCLUSIONS: Repair of AVSD and double orifice can be tricky. Preoperative LAVV regurgitation was not identified as an independent predictor of surgical outcome. LAVV hemivalve extension appears to be a useful and effective alternate surgical strategy when the ZoA cannot be closed.
PMID: 30897200 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]