BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Practice guidelines have been published for bronchiolitis and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but little is known about pediatricians’ knowledge of and attitudes toward these guidelines since their publication.

METHODS:

We surveyed pediatric providers at 6 children’s hospitals in the New York City area. Two vignettes, an infant with bronchiolitis and a child with CAP, were provided, and respondents were asked about management. Associations between respondent characteristics and their reported practices were examined using 2 and Fisher’s exact tests. Associations between questions probing knowledge and attitude barriers relevant to guideline adherence and reported practices were examined using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel relative risk estimates.

RESULTS:

Of 283 respondents, 58% were trainees; 57% of attending physician respondents had finished training within 10 years. Overall, 76% and 45% of respondents reported they had read the bronchiolitis and CAP guidelines, respectively. For the bronchiolitis vignette, 40% reported ordering a chest radiograph (CXR), and 38% prescribed bronchodilators (neither recommended). For the CAP vignette, 38% prescribed ceftriaxone (not recommended). Study site, level of training, and practice locations were associated with nonrecommended practices. Site-adjusted knowledge and attitude barriers were used to identify that those who agreed CXRs were useful in managing bronchiolitis were more likely to order CXRs, and those who felt bronchodilators shortened length of stay were more likely to prescribe them. Concerns about ampicillin resistance and lack of confidence using local susceptibility patterns to guide prescribing were associated with ordering ceftriaxone.

CONCLUSIONS:

Provider-level factors and knowledge gaps were associated with ordering nonrecommended treatments for bronchiolitis and CAP.

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