The prevalence and incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has rapidly increased over the past century. Although the etiology of IBD remains unclear, changes in societal norms, environment, diet, and lifestyles are likely contributory factors that promote IBD on a background of genetic susceptibility. The imbalance of intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) is caused by various factors and it has been suggested that dysbiosis results in disturbances in host-microbe interactions leading to the skewed immune system and IBD onset.

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