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Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract) of the small intestine in a 12-year-old boy.

Dev Period Med. 2018;22(4):358-363

Authors: Wolak P, Wincewicz A, Czauderna P, Spałek M, Kruczak A, Urbaniak-Wąsik S, Ryś J, Michalak E, Woltanowska M, Sulkowski S

Abstract
The aim of this paper is a clinical and anatomopathological demonstration of a malignant lesion, a gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET), as an exceedingly rare cause of ileus in the pediatric population. Specifically, we present the case of a 12-year-old boy who showed dramatic weight loss, hypochromic anemia, fever, dehydration, exaggerated granulation of the terminal ileum, and mechanical ileus due to the obstruction by an intramural tumor of the small intestine. A 50cm-long part of the small intestine with pathological stricture was surgically removed, sampled and routinely fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The additional immunostains that were preformed were: PAS, S-100, HMB-45, NSE, LCA, CK AE1 / AE3, desmin, SMA, vimentin, CD99, NSE, synaptophysin, WT-1, calretinin, and DOG-1. Moreover, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with the EWSR1 Break Apart FISH Probe was applied. The neoplasm was composed of nests and alveolar patterns of frankly malignant clear cells with immunoreactivity to S-100, vimentin, and CD 99. The FISH technique detected chromosomal breaking at 22q12. The tumor metastasized to both the mesenteric lymph nodes and a number of hepatic segments. With several chemotherapy protocols, repeat laparotomies, and liver thermal ablations, the patient had a 1.5-year-long survival from the moment of diagnosis. The diagnosis of this malignancy requires both histopathological evaluation and molecular analysis, and the follow-up is based on careful clinical imaging of the neoplastic spread in order to apply proper surgical and oncological treatments. In conclusion, the clinical course of GNET was highly aggressive.

PMID: 30636233 [PubMed – in process]

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