Abstract
Background

Leukoerythroblastosis, a non-specific and often short-lasting response of the bone marrow to different diseases such as malignancies or infections, is characterized by the presence in the peripheral blood of immature red and white cells.

Methods

We present a case of leukoerythoblastosis occurring in a 24 months old Mozambican girl, in the context of a severe malaria episode and an associated urinary tract infection. Peripheral blood smear was used for diagnosis of malaria and leukoerythroblastosis. Enterobacter cloacae isolation and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed by conventional microbiology.

Results

Peripheral blood smear was positive for Plasmodium falciparum and showed a leukoerythroblastosis with red cell anisopoikilocytosis and left shifted neutrophils. Urine culture confirmed the presence of a multi-resistant E. cloacae. Treatment of underlying conditions resolved the leukoerythroblastic reaction.

Conclusions

Leukoerythroblastosis may be related to different infectious diseases and may also appear in the context of severe malaria. Bacterial superinfection needs to be investigated.

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