Cladophialophora bantiana (C. bantiana) is a life-threatening melanized mycelial fungus causing brain abscess. C. bantiana is usually observed in tropical countries, including India. We report a Japanese case of C. bantiana presenting with myelitis mimicking neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and brain abscess. A 73-year-old man was administered prednisolone (30 mg/day) for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-related vasculitis 100 days before admission. He had right side-dominant paraplegia and sensory loss in the right leg.

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